Ethiopia. Melody Overton. Rural producers outside the Sidamo region could grow Sidamo coffee, as it would not need to have a characteristic that is unique to the Sidamo region. Starbucks’ Ethiopia produces a smooth cup with gentle floral notes, followed by sweet citrus and pepper, accompanied by dark chocolate tones from the roasting process. Used to indicate the regional origin of a particular product, a GI registration must demonstrate a link between a characteristic of the product and the region where it is produced. An exquisite blend with a reverence for the ritual of coffee, honoring Ethiopia’s bountiful legacy. Getachew Mengistie outlines Ethiopia’s Fine Coffee Trademarking and Licensing Initiative at WIPO’s 2007 GI Symposium. Unlike a GI, a trademark registration does not require a specific coffee to be produced in a specific region or have a particular quality in connection with that region. Intrigued, he tried some of the berries, and soon knew why his goats were dancing about. The EIPO has filed applications for trademark registrations of these three coffees in a number of other countries including Australia, Brazil, China, Saudi Arabia and South Africa. Our tribute to coffee history. The Initiative secured financial support from the Department for International Development (DFID) of the United Kingdom, technical advice from a Washington-based non-governmental organization (NGO), Light Years IP, and legal assistance from an American law firm, Arnold and Porter. This coffee was grown by smallholder farmers who dry ripe coffee cherries on raised beds, carefully rotating and circulating the fruit to ensure it dries evenly. Ethiopia, moreover, is not a member of the Madrid system for the international registration of marks. The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) had approved the application to register Yirgacheffe. The designations, they argued, referred not to geographical locations but to distinctive coffee types. With a velvety soft texture and floral, peppery spice notes, this is our tribute to the birthplace of coffee. Their joint efforts led to an announcement in 2006 that they had reached a mutually satisfactory agreement regarding the distribution, marketing and licensing of Ethiopia’s specialty coffee designations, which provided a framework for cooperation to promote recognition of Harrar, Sidamo and Yirgacheffe. Native tribes would grind the coffee cherries together, mixing the paste with animal fat. Coffee makes us severe, and grave and philosophical “Jonathan Swift, 1722” Possibly the cradle of mankind, now called Ethiopia, is the birthplace of coffee. It’s not a predictable or forgiving bean, and the roasting process needs constant monitoring. As his skills and passion grew, he built his own mill and began buying coffee cherries from area farmers. Born in the birthplace of coffee, Alemu Bukato began his coffee journey at a young age. Among the country’s limited tradable goods, coffee alone generates about 60 percent of Ethiopia’s total export earnings. In wealthy countries, a cup of cappuccino may be sold at US$ 4, but many coffee growers in Ethiopia and other developing countries earn less than a dollar a day. Starbucks first whole bean packaged coffee available globally since the introduction of Starbucks® Blonde Roast two years ago, Ethiopia coffee celebrates Ethiopia’s rich coffee tradition and delivers a taste in cup unlike any other coffee offered in Starbucks 42-year history. Customers can sample Ethiopia coffee at participating Starbucks stores in the United States on National Coffee Day, Sept. 29, and those who purchase a 1-pound bag of the new coffee will receive a commemorative Ethiopia … Moreover, appropriate intellectual property (IP) tools had to be chosen to meet specific needs and situations. In an interview transcript from a June 2006 Starbucks meeting on African coffees, he spoke warmly about the company’s role in advancing the well-being of Ethiopian coffee farmers: “This year we sold more coffee to Starbucks and they paid us a very good price, which is better than Fair Trade price. The Story of Ethiopia Single-Origin On the ancient slopes flanking Africa’s Great Rift Valley, coffee trees first emerged from the rich, volcanic soil. In the past 40 years alone, they have had three forms of government, from a militaristic Marxist ideology to the federal system today. He gathered several berries, took them to his wife, and sh… Ethiopia has a long, rich coffee history. The Ethiopian economy is heavily dependent on the trade of its primary products. The Initiative is organized and run by the Ethiopian Fine Coffee Stakeholder Committee (the Stakeholder Committee) – a consortium comprising cooperatives, private exporters and the Ethiopian Intellectual Property Office (EIPO) as well as other concerned government bodies. Starbucks agreed to sign voluntary trademark licensing agreements which immediately acknowledge Ethiopia’s ownership of the Harrar, Sidamo and Yirgacheffe names, regardless of whether or not a trademark registration has been granted. A United Kingdom-based company was given the responsibility of the brand promotion of Ethiopian coffee. However, there are many unique circumstances surrounding specialty coffee production in Ethiopia that actually make GI registrations less suitable than other forms of intellectual property (IP) protection. Information on the Initiative as well as licensing is made publicly available through a dedicated website. It’s a fine balancing act. These coffees have a unique flavor and aroma that distinguish them from coffees of other countries or even from other coffees of Ethiopia. Facebook 0 Twitter Pinterest 0 0 Likes. History of Coffee. The history of coffee then sees the consumption of coffee moving from Ethiopia to other countries including Yemen, Turkey, Egypt and also Persia. As Mr. Mengistie explained, “setting up a certification system would have been impracticable and too expensive.”. Within the country, some forty seven private coffee exporters and three coffee producer cooperative unions in Ethiopia have also signed the agreement. After all, the coffees are made in Ethiopia and named after the regions that made them famous. In 2004, the government launched the Ethiopian Coffee Trademarking and Licensing Initiative (the Initiative) to provide a practical solution to overcome the longstanding divide between what coffee farmers receive for a sack of their beans and what retailers charge for that coffee when they sell it in retail outlets in different countries. Although Ethiopian coffees such as Sidamo and Harrar are named after specific regions, all of it is not produced in the same region under the same circumstances. This traditional technique creates a deeply flavored, sweet and full-bodied cup with floral aromas followed … Some of the world’s finest coffees, such as Harrar®, Sidamo® and Yirgacheffee®, originate in Ethiopia. Soft and velvety with notes of dark chocolate, peppery spice and sweet citrus.Balanced, smooth and rich. Legal commentators have honed in on the use of the term “designation” in the agreement as a means of circumventing the obstacle caused by the status of the Harrar and Sidamo applications. Trademarks for Ethiopian coffees are also registered in the European Union and Canada. Starbucks executives - running an ambitious global expansion plan that aims to increase the number of the company's coffee houses from 13,700 in 39 countries to 40,000 globally - were also aware that other companies, such as Green Mountain Coffee Roasters ("Fair Trade and Organic"), were cooperating with the Ethiopian initiative and winning praise for "exemplary" behavior. Whether or not we believe there are kernels of truth in the legend of Kaldi and other stories about how coffee brewing was born, with archangels, whirling dervishes, and ghosts, there is a virtual certainty that the coffee plant originated in Ethiopia. History of coffee: From Ethiopia, Yemen – To the world. Ethiopia is the birthplace of coffee and one of the world’s top coffee producers and consumers. It is not related to certification.”. However, this is not a practical solution for Ethiopia. Starbucks will soon be introducing a new single-origin Ethiopian coffee into their core lineup, officially beginning in October. The key strategy, the Stakeholder Committee agreed, was to achieve wider recognition of the distinctive qualities of Ethiopian coffees as brands and so position them strategically in the expanding specialty coffee market; while at the same time to protect Ethiopia’s ownership of the names so as to prevent their misappropriation. Starbucks Reserve® Ethiopia Gedeb Born in the birthplace of coffee, Alemu Bukato began his coffee journey at a young age. They were said to almost be dancing on their hind legs. Our tribute to coffee history. Absolutely—only the packaging is different. Starbucks is famous for their high quality beverages, out of which the coffee that are being provided by them is famous across the globe (www.starbucks.com, 2018). Oxfam says Starbucks has used the American legal system to block an Ethiopian plan to gain more control over its coffee trade and better earnings for coffee farmers living in poverty. The US retailer will market, distribute and, in some cases, license Ethiopia's range of high-quality coffee brands. For example, a GI for Sidamo coffee would require every bag of Sidamo to be produced, processed or prepared in the Sidamo region and have a special quality that is directly dependent on the unique properties of the region. The rest of coffee’s history in Ethiopia is quite turbulent. “Our coffee is grown on four million very small plots of land. While Oxfam accuses the Americans of acting irresponsibly and preventing Ethiopian coffee farmers from earning … The coffee is sourced from Kayon Mountain Farm, Guji zone, Oromia region. It is to be noted that, Ethiopia is the seventh largest producer of coffee in the world and is the top coffee producer in Africa. Starbucks Ethiopia coffee is available at Starbucks retail stores and online at www.starbucksstore.com for the suggested retail price of $13.95 for 1 pound. CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland, Some of the world’s finest coffees originate in Ethiopia (Photo: WIPO/RES/DEV/GE/09/WWW[130155]). Mild and mellow, the lighter roast perfected. Is your coffee in the grocery stores the same as the coffee in your stores? This coffee is born of a collaboration between Starbucks and Ethiopian coffee farmers that started in 2005. The company worked together with the stakeholders and developed the brands and brand guidelines which were approved in July 2008. Government oversight of coffee producers is therefore nearly impossible. The Stakeholder Committee therefore opted for a trademark-based solution, with the Ethiopian government as the owner of these marks. They opted for a well-organized branding instrument. Starbucks insisted, however, that it was committed to paying premium prices to producers in more than 27 countries and its purchases of Ethiopian coffee had grown by … Against the average final retail price ranging from US$ 20 to 28 per kilogram, the farmers were receiving as little as US$ 1 per kilogram. Today our master roasters have created an entirely new way to experience these treasured beans. Artistically-designed logos of different types of Ethiopian Fine Coffee 1354 words (5 pages) Essay. From these ninth-century highlands, arabica coffee beans began their long journey from Ethiopia to the rest of the world. Coffee production in Ethiopia . Upon further investigation, he saw they were eating red cherries of some wild bushes. All rights reserved. Purchasing this coffee helps support Ethiopian coffee farmers… and in 2004, Oxfam worked with Starbucks to lessen poverty in coffee farming communities. Have fun, dream big and connect with friends. The story goes that a 9 th century goat herder named Kaldi noticed their stimulating effects on his goats and began experimenting. According to Wiki, The origin and history of coffee dates back to the 10th century, and possibly earlier with a number of reports and legends surrounding its first use. It was well known that his goats jumped higher and ran faster than any other goats. # 1: Ethiopia is where coffee was first discovered. Immediately after the resolution of the dispute, the stakeholders of Ethiopian coffee focused their attention on the need for a marketing strategy. This is so you can easily find your Starbucks favorites in the coffee aisle. The History of Ethiopian Coffee. In August 2006, the USPTO informed the EIPO that their rebuttal in the case of Harar had been successful. The media coverage had the effect of greatly increasing public knowledge of, and interest in, Ethiopia’s coffees. The Story of Ethiopia Single-Origin The high cost of legal services for foreign trademark registration created some initial difficulties. Starbucks sells a lot of coffee. © 2019 Starbucks Coffee Company. An exquisite blend with a reverence for the ritual of coffee, honoring Ethiopia’s bountiful legacy. Starbucks denied initiating the opposition to the trademark application, insisting it was a NCA decision. After finishing school, he rented a wet mill and started experimenting with processing in Ethiopia’s coffee-rich Kochere zone. Some of the world’s finest coffees, such as Harrar®, Sidamo® and Yirgacheffee®, originate in Ethiopia. Starbucks Reserve® Ethiopia Gedeb. There, legend says the goat herder Kaldi first discovered the potential of these beloved beans. If each Ethiopian specialty coffee were registered as a GI it would have to be produced in a specific area of the country under specific circumstances. Everyone wanted to trade their best rugs or cooking pots for a Kaldi super goat. In 2006 Starbucks purchased fewer than 10 million pounds of coffee from those regions, the equivalent of 2 to 3 percent of the company’s worldwide coffee purchases and a relatively small percentage of Ethiopia’s total coffee exports. Coffee Day also marks the long history of the drink: the properties of coffee beans are thought to have first been discovered in Ethiopia.The beans are actually the pits found in the coffee berry or cherry. The native (undomesticated) origin of coffee … “Rather than focusing on short term gain, this way we can enlist the big companies to do what we don’t have the skills or financial means for – that is, building recognition of our brands in international markets and so increasing long term demand for them.”. However, only 5 to 10 percent of the retail price actually goes back to Ethiopia; most of the profit is shared by distributors and middlemen in the marketing sector. Starbucks Card Terms of Use and Agreement. Ethiopia. A Single-Origin Coffee Unlike Anything in Starbucks 42-Year History, Ethiopia is Masterfully Roasted for an Exquisite Taste Experience. See the new food choices we have in store. It’s about coffee. (Picture: WIPO/RES/DEV/GE/09/WWW[130155]). This case study is based on information from: Madrid – The International Trademark System, Lisbon – The International System of Geographical Indications, Budapest – The International Microorganism Deposit System, Centralized Access to Search and Examination (CASE), SCCR - Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights, SCP - Standing Committee on the Law of Patents, SCT - Standing Committee on the Law of Trademarks, IGC - Intergovernmental Committee on IP & GR, TK & Folklore, https://www.wipo.int/wipo_magazine/en/2007/05/article_0001.html, https://www.wipo.int/meetings/en/doc_details.jsp?doc_id=130155, https://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/sme/en/wipo_smes_dar_09/wipo_smes_dar_09_topic_07_1.pdf, https://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/sme/en/wipo_smes_rom_09/wipo_smes_rom_09_o_workshop09_4-related1.pdf, http://www.lightyearsip.net/downloads/Distinctive_values_in_African_exports.pdf#page=15, http://www.nai.uu.se/publications/electronic_publ/notes_trade3.pdf, http://www.luc.edu/law/activities/publications/ilrdocs/vol6_no2/pdf/vol6_issue2.pdf, https://www.wipo.int/academy/en/ipacademies/educational_materials/cs4_sidamo.pdf, Ethiopian Fine Coffee Stakeholder Committee. Coffee shops abound in Ethiopia’s cities and towns; beans are still bought green and roasted at home. A movement, spearheaded by Oxfam International, aimed at pressuring Starbucks to sign the Ethiopian trademarking agreement, in order to improve economic conditions of the impoverished coffee bean farmers. (Picture: WIPO/RES/DEV/GE/09/WWW[130155]). Starbucks and Ethiopian Coffee: The Bitter Taste of Exploitation . (Photo: courtesy EIPO). Seattle-based Starbucks Coffee Co. launched its latest single-origin coffee: Ethiopia. Medium Roast, 250g. Our tribute to coffee history. No one knows exactly how or when coffee was discovered, though there are many legends about its origin. As of early 2020, the company operates over 30,000 locations worldwide in more than 70 countries. Meanwhile, both Starbucks and the Ethiopian government were keen to resolve their differences quickly and find a flexible way forward. The adopted strategy offered royalty-free license agreements and required the licensee to sell the specialty coffees using the registered trademarks (free of charge) on any product that consists wholly of Ethiopian specialty coffees and to promote Ethiopian fine coffee by educating their customers. Oxfam says Starbucks is depriving farmers in Ethiopia of $90m a year by opposing the Ethiopian government's efforts to trademark three types of local coffee … The History of Ethiopian Coffee. This coffee is born of a collaboration between Starbucks and Ethiopian coffee farmers that started in 2005. The trademark strategy for Ethiopian coffee faced a major difficulty in 2006. Starbucks and Ethiopian coffee. The EIPO filed rebuttals against the USPTO decisions with supporting evidence to demonstrate that the terms Harrar and Sidamo had acquired distinctiveness. Origins of Ethiopia Coffee. Posted in Celebrations, Daily life, History, Out and about, tagged coffee ceremony in Ethiopia, coffee trademarks, Ethiopian coffee, Kaldi's, Starbucks and Ethiopian coffee, the legend of Kaldi on May 30, 2012| 4 Comments » History of Coffee. In the past 40 years alone, they have had three forms of government, from a militaristic Marxist ideology to the federal system today. This exquisite blend is our tribute to the birthplace of coffee. The novelty of the Initiative is that it enabled the growers and producers to become part of price setters instead of being price takers. “These systems are far more effective than registering trademarks for geographically descriptive terms, which is actually contrary to general trademark law and customs,” said the company in a statement. Under this approach, a total of four brands were created: an umbrella brand with the name “Ethiopian Fine Coffee” and three individual brands entitled “Harar Ethiopian Fine Coffee,” “Yirgacheffe Ethiopian Fine Coffee” and “Sidamo Ethiopian Fine Coffee”. A Brief History of Coffee: Goats, Roosevelt, and Starbucks Hundreds of years ago, an Ethiopian goat herder named Kaldi became notorious for his trip of goats. 34, chemin des Colombettes "People used to ask: Oh, does Ethiopia produce coffee?" After acquiring the trademarks, Ethiopia initiated a royalty-free licensing scheme. The EIPO began filing applications to register the names Harrar/Harar, Sidamo and Yirgacheffe as trademarks in key markets. The History And Introduction To Starbucks Coffee Marketing Essay. From these ninth-century highlands Arabica coffee beans began their long journey from Ethiopia to the rest of the world. If you go to the website of Starbucks, the international coffee chain, this is what you will read: Starbucks strongly believes in the importance of building mutually-beneficial relationships with coffee farmers and coffee communities with which we work. On the ancient slopes flanking Africa’s Great Rift Valley, coffee trees first emerged from the rich, volcanic soil. The American coffee chain Starbucks Coffee Corporation, which was widely reported in the media to have been a driving force behind the NCA objection, publicly offered to assist the EIPO in setting up a national system of certification marks to enable the farmers to protect and market their coffee as “robust” geographical indications. (You might see it available in baskets before then). The licensing strategy is expected to boost consumer recognition of Ethiopian coffee trademarks and facilitate the growth of the demand for Ethiopian fine coffees. A few things you may not know about Ethiopian coffee. These changes have had marked positive results in terms of increased income and improved living standards of the coffee producers. The beans are spread on raised beds in the full sun with the cherries still on. From these ninth-century highlands, arabica coffee beans began their long journey from Ethiopia to the rest of the world. Of all the coffee-producing countries, Ethiopia is the only one that has a higher domestic consumption rate than export rate. Today our master roasters have created an entirely new way to experience these treasured beans. A GI also requires that the government oversee producers and distributors to guarantee that the coffees sold belong to a particular style or region, such as Sidamo. Coffee shops abound in Ethiopia's cities and towns; beans are still bought green and roasted at home. The government of Ethiopia wanted its coffee to have more market visibility so that the export premium for Ethiopian specialty coffee could be raised. Ethiopian Coffee History . A Brief History of Coffee: Goats, Roosevelt, and Starbucks. Trademarking was more appropriate to our needs. The Ethiopian government had to make a decision on how to best use IPRs to obtain exclusive ownership of Ethiopian coffee names, achieve wider international recognition and maximize returns. Ethiopia has undergone many changes in their government. The purpose of licensing, according to Mr. Mengistie, is “to secure recognition from the coffee distribution industry that Ethiopia owns and controls the use of trademarks, thereby building the reputation and good will of its specialty coffees around the trademarks.” The government of Ethiopia wanted its coffee to have more market visibility so that the export premium for Ethiopian specialty coffee could be raised. The grounds for opposition in both cases were that the names had become too generic a description of coffee, and as such were not eligible for registration under United States trademark law. Oxfam accused Starbucks of asking the US coffee trade body, the National Coffee Association (NCA), to block Ethiopia's bid to trademark the three types of beans in the US. Ethiopian coffee tends to produce beans that are smaller than other origin varieties (15+ screen). The True History of Ethiopian Coffee. Of course, not everyone believes that coffee berries were first found in Ethiopia, since there is no historical record of it. Hundreds of years ago, an Ethiopian goat herder named Kaldi became notorious for his trip of goats. Kaldi reported his findings to the abbot of the local monastery, who made a drink with the berries and found that it kept hi… “Yes,” acknowledges Mr. Mengistie, “designation is used here as a broader term than trademark, to encompass some of the trademarks that are still pending registration. From these ninth-century highlands, arabica coffee beans began their long journey from Ethiopia to the rest of the world. Africa . This, in addition to variations in bean size, makes it tricky to roast them without losing their delicate and nuanced flavours. Oxfam says Starbucks is depriving farmers in Ethiopia of $90m a year by opposing the Ethiopian government's efforts to trademark three types of local coffee bean. We worked with smallholder farmers who applied the natural processing method on their very best beans. Just an ordinary Seattleiete. The lively, highly social two-hour coffee ceremony remains intact. This is just one variation on the Kaldi story: More than a thousand years ago, Kaldi, an Abyssinian goat herder saw his goats acting strangely. Last year Ethiopia earned 763 million dollars from the export of 230,764tn of coffee. In the United States, Yirgacheffe was the first to obtain registration; Sidamo and Harrar/ Harar were granted registration at a later time. There is an increasing demand for Ethiopian fine coffee in the world market. We worked with smallholder farmers who applied the natural processing method on their very best beans. The story goes that that Kaldi discovered coffee after he noticed that after eating the berries from a certain tree, his goats became so energetic that they did not want to sleep at night. Producers of primary goods in many developing countries often receive only marginal returns. Using trademark registrations, the government of Ethiopia could then produce greater quantities of specialty coffees from all over the country. Coffee grown worldwide can trace its heritage back centuries to the ancient coffee forests on the Ethiopian plateau. From these ninth-century highlands, arabica coffee beans began their long journey from Ethiopia to the rest of the world. Therefore the very nature of coffee production in Ethiopia makes GI certification difficult and impractical. Indeed, coffee is closely tied to the culture and society of Ethiopia and an estimated 15 million people are directly or indirectly involved in the Ethiopian coffee industry. In Japan, registration certificates have been secured for two of the coffees (Yirgacheffe and Sidamo). Specialty coffee in Ethiopia is grown on over four million small plots of land by an estimated 600,000 independent farmers spread throughout the country in remote areas. The revenue is 70pc of the target. Acidity: High The Initiative has created the momentum for change and bears the potential to offer more feasible ways to improve the commercial prospects and financial returns for marginal producers of coffee or other similar commodities. This new coffee joins Starbucks selection of 20 core and 10 traditional and seasonal whole bean coffees offered at … While managing the Starbucks in Croydon North End, two of my Ethiopian staff asked if they could perform a traditional Ethiopian coffee ceremony. Rolled into little balls, the mixture was used to give warriors energy for battle. View fullsize. By mid-2009, almost one hundred license agreements have been concluded with coffee importing, roasting and distributing companies in North America, Europe, Japan and South Africa. This African nation enjoys a strong reputation for its heritage coffees which command a very high retail price in the international market. Read on to find out what makes Ethiopia’s coffee so good. Starbucks Corporation is an American multinational chain of coffeehouses and roastery reserves headquartered in Seattle, Washington.As the world's largest coffeehouse chain, Starbucks is seen to be the main representation of the United States' second wave of coffee culture. Artistically-designed logos for each of the brand names were also created. This was overcome by support from law firms which agreed to provide their services pro bono. SunDried. Starbucks has agreed a wide-ranging accord with Ethiopia to support and promote its coffee, ending a long-running dispute over the issue. The Initiative has helped Ethiopia to differentiate Ethiopian coffees from coffees of other countries, which strengthened the confidence and bargaining position of the coffee growers and exporters of the country. “Partly because of this recognition, we have begun to see increases in their price,” says Mr. Mengistie. (Photo: WIPO/EM), The EIPO took the leadership of the Initiative and began working on identifying a mechanism which would lead to a greater share for the country’s coffee growers. Starbucks is a global coffee giant, which was founded in 1971 as a local coffee bean retailer.Headquartered in Seattle, the company is now the world’s biggest coffeehouse chain, comprising of approximately 20,891 stores in 62 countries. The paste with animal fat IP ) tools had to be chosen to meet specific needs and situations Sidamo acquired! 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